Detached Olive, Halford

Shell Fly, Berners
yamame   Japanese fish
  A Japanese native trout with the scientific name Oncorhynchus masou masou, Salmoninae, Salmonidae. The English name is masu trout. It belongs to the same species of sakuramasu, and what is called yamame is the remaining types of fish in the river. The sea-run type is called sakuramasu or Cherry Salmon in English. Alias: yamabe (northern Japan), suginoko (Aomori Pref.), hae (Okuhida), hirame/hirabe (San-in district), enoha (Kyushu), madara (South Kyushu).
  It is a neat and beautiful trout called the "Queen of Mountain Streams" in Japan. A highly desired target of fly fishing in Japan, it inhabits mountain streams in which the maximum water temperature is 20 degrees C or less throughout the year. Yamame inhabits the downstream part of where Japanese char (iwana) inhabit. Their main food is aquatic insects and terrestrials. It swims swiftly and attacks the fly quick as a wink. The adult yamame has parr marks at its side which is greenish blue in color. The back is generally olive and has small black dots. Although it resembles amago, yamame does not have red spots. The upper and lower edges of the tail fin are brightly vermilion, and there is a faint purplish red tone along the lateral line. A sexually matured male has a larger head than a female, and the mouth is a little sharper. The size of yamame is mostly 20 cm in total length, and if it exceeds 30 cm, it will be treasured as a "Syaku (about 30 cm) Yamame". It rarely grows to 40 cm or more.
  The laying of eggs is performed at the time of autumnal leaves, and the eggs take about 40 days to hatch. During breeding season, both sexes turn blackish and a pink, mottled pattern appears (nuptial color). Anglers call this state "rust entered". If a yamame caught in the early spring is dark, it will be expressed as "rust has not been taken yet."
  A natural habitat for yamame are the rivers in the western side of the North Pacific Ocean. In Japan they are spread over the whole country except in the region where amago inhabit. Yamame inhabit a whole area of Hokkaido, Honsyu (all coasts of the Japan Sea side, east of Sakawa River, Kanagawa Pref. of Pacific Ocean side), and Kyusyu (south of Ohno River, Oita Pref.).
  In Hokkaido, and in the northern Honsyu, it goes to sea and becomes sakuramasu (cherry salmon). In spring through early summer, a part of young yamame become smolt, and they go down to sea. Local names of the smolt of yamame include ginke (Hokkaido), masunoko (Shimokita Pen.), hikari (Iwate Pref.), shiroyamo (Utsunomiya), hohonaga (Tonegawa upper stream area), shiroyamame (Chikuma River upper stream area), shirahae (Okuhida), and gin-enoha (Kyushu).
  Originally, yamame and amago separated their distribution clearly. However, after a large scale stocking operation of yamame and amago performed in 1970, border lines of distribution became obscured. In addition, it is assumed that stocked yamame and amago are easily crossbred, and a mixed type is seen increasingly.
  It is a delicious table fish and there are various traditional recipes. Refer to color and XX page.
ReferenceJapanese freshwater fish (in Japanese), 1993 (1989). For the understanding of salmon and trout (in Japanese), 2000.
cherry salmon, smolt, amago, nuptial color
Selected Headings

River Traun is an ideal stream for fly fishing surrounded by beautiful forest.
 It is easy to wade, and contains abundant aquatic insects and big trout.
 At Gmunden, Austria.