The Beanly, Francis
Wasp Fly, Berners
whirling disease English 《noxious organism》
A disease found in fish that is caused by the infection of protozoa called Myxosoma cerebralis. The size of Myxosoma is about 7 microns and is about the same size as a red blood corpuscle. When infected, mostly the cartilage is damaged, and it results in bony deformities secondarily. When a fish is infected, its spinal column shows a deformity especially at the caudal part. When a fry (juvenile fish) gets infected, the caudal area and the tail are changed to blackish in color. A deformity of the skull may take place.
Because the rear half of a fry or young fish is bent into an S shape, it becomes impossible for it to swim correctly. It turns round and round, and the disease is called whirling disease. When an infected fish dies, millions of protozoa will come out into the water, it becomes a spore, and it is said that a spore will continue to be alive for 30 years.
Rainbow trout and cutthroat trout are most susceptible to this disease, however brown trout and other Salmonidae can also be a carrier of the protozoa. “Carrier” means that it does not get ill by the disease, but it does have a noxious organism in its body and can deliver the organism to other fish. It appears that the possibility of infection in mammals or humans is not entirely implausible. No treatment (drug) to cure the disease is available. In order to eradicate the disease, all infected fish must be exterminated, and the water must be disinfected.
【Reference】McClane's new standard fishing encyclopedia, 1998 (1965). Ken Schultz's fishing encyclopedia, 2000. http://www.whirling-disease.org/prevention.pdf
Whirling Dun English 《insect》《fly》
An argument continues to exist in Britain over the mayfly called whirling dun by Charles Cotton in the 17th century. A conclusion has not been reached about which mayfly he had actually meant to describe. Cotton’s description states that: "When on around the 12th of April, a fly called whirling dun comes out, it flies at lunch time every day. It continues to be eaten by trout until the end of the month. This fly appears intermitted until the end of June after that."
Alfred Ronalds described whirling blue dun as #42 in the "Fly-Fisher's Entomology" (1836); "This fly is born from the nymph in the water, and after three days, it becomes a light red spinner. It can be seen from September to the middle of October, and often appears on a windy cold day. This may be the 2nd hatch of yellow dun seen in April, and the autumn mayfly is smaller and has a stronger ginger color. Although Ronalds wrote that this mayfly belongs to the family of Cloeon, Harris says that it should be Baetis Rhodani. Moreover, opinions exist that it should be either Leptophlebia or Ephemerella.
Whirling dun seems to be either Cloeon, Baetis, Leptophlebia or Ephemerella. Uncertainty still exists concerning exact mayfly species. John Goddard of Britain did not mention whirling dun at all in his books.
In the United States, Ephemerella subvaria or Leptophlebia was once called whirling dun. Preston Jennings has indicated that the Hendrickson is a suitable pattern for a whirling dun.
It is a mayfly with many mysteries, the truth is far beyond the fog of time.
【Tying Material】Ronalds's Whirling Blue Dun, #42 Color xx page.
hook: grayling hook, # 2
thread: yellow silk
body: mixture of reddish brown squirrel fur and yellow mohair
tail: 1-2 of pale ginger hackle fiber
wing: starling, not so bright
legs: pale ginger hackle
【Tying Material】Pattern in "Fish Flies" of Terry Hellekson
hook: # 10-14
tail: brown hackle fiber
body: muskrat fur
wing: natural grey duck quill, parallel to shank
hackle: brown, tied as a collar style and tied back and down
【Reference】English trout flies, 1969 (1967). Matching the hatch, 1955. Fly-fisher's entomology, 1856 (1836). Hatches II, 1986. A book of trout flies, 1935. Art of fly making, 1993 (1855). Trout flies of Britain and Europe, 1991. Fish flies, 1995.
→Cloeon, Baetis, Leptophlebia, Ephemerella