Ruddy Fly, Berners

Midge Flies
upside-down fly  English fly
  A fly in which the hook is used upside down. As for the oldest description of an upside down fly, Col. Robert Venables in Britain mentioned such a fly in the "The Experienced Angler" (1662). The fly was a mayfly imitation that had the wing attached to the point side of a hook. At the time, many people imitated this pattern, and it was also called reversed-wing. Because the hook point is in the air in this pattern, it can be effective to catch overly sophisticated trout. However, hooking is said to be somewhat difficult.
  In the 1970s, Brian Clarke and John Goddard of Britain introduced a series of upside down patterns, and called it the USD series. Later on Neil Patterson made an outstanding fly pattern called Funneldun as an improved version of USD series.
  In the United States, Joe Brooks introduced the Keel Fly in his book "Trout Fishing" (1972). In Japan, upside down flies have been often called keel fly or keel style, however because Keel Fly is a company's name, upside down fly is more desirable for use in common expression.
ReferenceA dictionary of fly-fishing, 1993 (1992). The experienced angler, 1969 (1662). The trout and the fly, 1980. Trout fishing, 1972.
Robert Venables, USD Paradun series, Funnel Dun, Joe Brooks, Trout Fishing, keel fly
Water Knot  English knot
  A knot connecting two lines with different thickness, it is considered the oldest knot in the history of fly fishing, and it is told that Juliana Berners in the 15th century connected two horse hairs using this knot. The Water Knot used in Britain is basically the same as a Surgeon's Knot.
  How to tie it: Overlap the tips of two lines for about 10 cm, make a ring of the doubled lines, pass one side of the double line through the ring for 2 to 4 times, pull the longer line and fasten. Referring to how many times the double lines should be passed through the ring, it varies from two to four times depending on the book. If it is two times, it is the same as a Surgeon's Knot, and if it is three times, it will become the same as a Double Surgeon's Knot. Two times somehow seems to be right.
  What is surprising is that a knot used at least 500 years ago continues to be used even now. It may be a proof that simple and useful things are passed on from generation to generation.
ReferenceThe fly fisher's illustrated dictionary, 2000. A dictionary of fly-fishing, 1993 (1992). Practical fishing knots, 1991 (1972).
Juliana Berners, Surgeon's Knot, Double Surgeon's Knot
Selected Headings

A nice view from Omineca Lodge, which was built in an island of a lake deep
in the British Columbia of Canada.
 The lake is full of rainbow trout.